In Dynamic flux balance modeling to increase the production of high-value compounds in green microalgae (click here for free access), the authors present a flexible modeling formulation for accumulation of high-value storage molecules in microalgae that provides quantitative predictions under various light and nutrient conditions. The modeling approach is based on dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA) and includes regulatory models to predict the accumulation of pigment molecules. The accuracy of the model predictions is validated through independent experimental data followed by a subsequent model-based fed-batch optimization. In an experimentally validated fed-batch optimization study, biomass and β-carotene density are increased by factors of about 2.5 and 2.1, respectively. The analysis shows that a model-based approach can be used to develop and significantly improve biotechnological processes for biofuels and pigments.